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Jimena Galván
Jimena Galván

Aho Ullman Compiler Design Solution 11

Aho Ullman Compiler Design Solution 11

Compiler design is the process of creating software that can translate source code written in a high-level programming language into executable code for a target machine. Compiler design is a challenging and rewarding subject that requires a solid understanding of various concepts and techniques, such as lexical analysis, parsing, semantic analysis, intermediate representation, code generation, code optimization, and more.

One of the most popular and influential books on compiler design is Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools, also known as the Dragon Book, by Alfred V. Aho, Ravi Sethi, Jeffrey D. Ullman, and Monica S. Lam. This book covers the theory and practice of compiler design in a comprehensive and systematic way, with many examples and exercises to help students master the material. The book has been revised and updated several times since its first edition in 1986, and the latest edition was published in 2006. The book is divided into four parts:

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  • Part I: Introduction: This part introduces the basic concepts and terminology of compiler design, such as grammars, languages, regular expressions, finite automata, context-free grammars, pushdown automata, lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation, type checking, run-time environments, intermediate code generation, and code generation.

  • Part II: Translation: This part focuses on the techniques for translating the source program into an intermediate representation that can be manipulated by the compiler. It covers topics such as syntax analysis, bottom-up parsing, top-down parsing, LR parsers, LL parsers, error recovery, semantic analysis, attribute grammars, syntax-directed translation schemes, intermediate languages, translation of expressions, control flow, boolean expressions, backpatching, switch statements, procedure calls, parameter passing mechanisms, symbol tables, static checking, type systems, type conversions, type equivalence and compatibility.

  • Part III: Optimization: This part discusses the methods for improving the quality and performance of the generated code. It covers topics such as basic blocks and flow graphs, optimization of basic blocks, loops in flow graphs, data-flow analysis frameworks and algorithms (reaching definitions, live variables), global data-flow analysis (available expressions), loop optimization (invariant code motion), induction variable elimination), dependence analysis (loop dependence graph), loop transformations (loop unrolling), instruction scheduling (list scheduling), register allocation (graph coloring), peephole optimization.

  • Part IV: Advanced Topics: This part covers some advanced topics in compiler design that are not essential for building a basic compiler but are useful for enhancing the functionality and efficiency of compilers. It covers topics such as garbage collection (mark-and-sweep algorithm), object-oriented languages (inheritance and dynamic dispatch), functional languages (lambda calculus and closures), logic languages (unification and resolution), concurrency (threads and synchronization), exception handling (zero-cost exceptions), interprocedural analysis (call graphs and pointer analysis), machine-independent optimizations (scalar replacement and partial redundancy elimination), machine-dependent optimizations (instruction selection patterns and tiling).

The book provides many exercises at the end of each chapter to help students practice their skills and test their understanding. However, the book does not provide solutions for these exercises. Therefore, students may find it difficult to check their answers or learn from their mistakes. Fortunately, there are some online resources that provide solutions for some of the exercises from the book. Here are some of them:

  • : This PDF document provides solutions for selected exercises from chapters 1 to 7 of the book.

  • : This web page provides model answers for some exam questions that are based on the exercises from the book.

  • : This web page provides a review of the book and some tips for learning compiler design.

These resources can be helpful for students who want to learn more about compiler design and improve their problem-solving skills. However, they are not official or complete solutions for the book. Therefore, students should use them with caution and discretion. They should also try to solve the exercises on their own before looking at the solutions, and compare their answers with the solutions to identify their strengths and weaknesses. Moreover, they should not rely solely on these resources, but also consult other books, articles, lectures, and online forums on compiler design to gain a deeper and broader understanding of the subject.

Compiler design is a fascinating and rewarding subject that can enhance one's programming skills and knowledge. By studying the book Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools by Aho, Sethi, Ullman, and Lam, and using the online resources that provide solutions for some of the exercises from the book, students can learn the fundamental concepts and techniques of compiler design and apply them to build their own compilers.


  • Aho, A. V., Sethi, R., Ullman, J. D., & Lam, M. S. (2006). Compilers: principles, techniques, and tools (2nd ed.). Pearson Education.

  • Aho, A. V., Sethi, R., & Ullman, J. D. (1986). Compilers: principles, techniques, and tools. Addison-Wesley.


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