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Maps and Diagrams: Their Compilation and Construction - A Comprehensive Book by F.J. Monkhouse and H.R. Wilkinson



Maps and Diagrams Monkhouse PDF 20


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Maps and diagrams are powerful tools for visualizing and communicating information. They can help us understand complex phenomena, identify patterns and trends, compare data across regions or groups, and make decisions based on evidence. But how are maps and diagrams made? What are the principles and techniques behind their compilation and construction? And what are some examples of different types of maps and diagrams?




mapsanddiagramsmonkhousepdf20


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In this article, we'll explore these questions by reviewing a classic book on the subject: Maps and Diagrams: Their Compilation and Construction by F.J. Monkhouse and H.R. Wilkinson. This book was first published in 1963 and revised in 1971 . It covers the theoretical and practical aspects of map and diagram making, from data sources and selection, to data processing and analysis, to data presentation and communication. It also provides numerous illustrations and examples of various types of maps and diagrams, such as thematic maps, statistical maps, topographic maps, cartograms, flow maps, and more.


If you're interested in learning more about maps and diagrams, this book is a great resource to start with. It's available online as a PDF file that you can download for free. You can also find other formats and editions of the book on the Internet Archive .


What are maps and diagrams?


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Before we dive into the details of how maps and diagrams are made, let's first define what they are. According to Monkhouse and Wilkinson, maps and diagrams are "graphic representations of information" (p. 1). They are different from pictures or photographs, which are "direct reproductions of visual impressions" (p. 1). Maps and diagrams use symbols, colors, shapes, lines, and other elements to represent data or information in a simplified or abstracted way.


There are many types of maps and diagrams, but they can be broadly classified into two categories: maps and diagrams. Maps are "graphic representations of spatial relationships" (p. 2). They show the location, size, shape, or distribution of features or phenomena on the earth's surface or in the sky. Diagrams are "graphic representations of non-spatial relationships" (p. 2). They show the quantity, quality, structure, or function of features or phenomena that are not necessarily related to space or geography.


Maps and diagrams have different functions and uses, depending on their purpose and audience. Some of the functions and uses of maps and diagrams are: - To describe or explain a phenomenon or situation - To compare or contrast data or information - To summarize or simplify complex data or information - To reveal or highlight patterns or trends - To illustrate or support an argument or hypothesis - To persuade or influence an opinion or action


How are maps and diagrams compiled?


Data sources and selection



The first step in making a map or diagram is to collect and select the data or information that will be represented. There are many sources of data for map and diagram making, such as surveys, censuses, statistics, measurements, observations, experiments, documents, literature, etc. The choice of data sources depends on the availability, reliability, validity, accuracy, timeliness, and relevance of the data for the intended purpose and audience of the map or diagram.


Monkhouse and Wilkinson provide some guidelines for selecting data sources for map and diagram making (pp. 9-12): - Use primary sources whenever possible, as they are more original and authentic than secondary sources - Use multiple sources to cross-check and verify the data, as they may have different biases or errors - Use official sources to obtain standardized and consistent data, as they are more authoritative and credible than unofficial sources - Use recent sources to reflect the current situation, as they are more up-to-date and relevant than outdated sources - Use relevant sources to match the scope and scale of the map or diagram, as they are more appropriate and meaningful than irrelevant sources


Data processing and analysis



The second step in making a map or diagram is to process and analyze the data or information that has been collected and selected. This involves applying various methods and tools to manipulate, transform, classify, aggregate, disaggregate, correlate, interpolate, extrapolate, generalize, or specialize the data to make it suitable for presentation and communication. The choice of data processing and analysis methods and tools depends on the type, format, quality, quantity, complexity, and variability of the data, as well as the objective and message of the map or diagram.


Monkhouse and Wilkinson provide some examples of data processing and analysis methods and tools for map and diagram making (pp. 13-40): - Calculations: performing arithmetic operations on numerical data to obtain derived values, such as ratios, percentages, averages, indices, etc. Heading Subheading Content --- --- --- - Normalizations: adjusting the values of data to eliminate the effects of different units, scales, or bases, such as per capita, per area, per time, etc. - Classifications: grouping or dividing data into categories or classes based on some criteria or rules, such as qualitative, quantitative, ordinal, nominal, etc. - Aggregations: combining or adding data from smaller units to larger units to reduce complexity or increase clarity, such as regions, countries, continents, etc. - Disaggregations: splitting or subtracting data from larger units to smaller units to increase detail or specificity, such as districts, cities, towns, etc. - Correlations: measuring the degree of association or relationship between two or more variables or sets of data, such as positive, negative, linear, nonlinear, etc. - Interpolations: estimating the values of data for unknown or missing points based on known or existing points, such as linear, quadratic, cubic, etc. - Extrapolations: predicting the values of data for future or hypothetical points based on known or existing points, such as trends, projections, scenarios, etc. - Generalizations: simplifying or abstracting the data to emphasize the main features or patterns and ignore the minor details or variations, such as smoothing, filtering, rounding, etc. - Specializations: highlighting or emphasizing the data to show the specific features or patterns and ignore the general background or context, such as isolines, contours, shading, etc. Data presentation and communication



The third step in making a map or diagram is to present and communicate the data or information that has been processed and analyzed. This involves applying various principles and techniques to select, design, and arrange the elements that will represent the data or information in a graphic form, such as symbols, colors, shapes, lines, texts, etc. The choice of data presentation and communication principles and techniques depends on the nature, format, quality, quantity, complexity, and variability of the data, as well as the purpose, message, and audience of the map or diagram.


Monkhouse and Wilkinson provide some examples of data presentation and communication principles and techniques for map and diagram making (pp. 41-160): - Symbols: choosing the appropriate type, size, shape, color, orientation, or arrangement of symbols to represent different kinds or values of data, such as points, lines, areas, vectors, etc. - Colors: choosing the appropriate hue, value, saturation, or contrast of colors to represent different kinds or values of data, such as qualitative, quantitative, sequential, diverging, etc. - Scales: choosing the appropriate ratio or proportion of distance or size between the map or diagram and reality, such as large scale, small scale, linear scale, logarithmic scale, etc. - Projections: choosing the appropriate method or system of transforming the spherical surface of the earth into a flat surface of a map, such as cylindrical, conical, azimuthal, equal area, conformal, etc. - Legends: choosing the appropriate location, format, style, or content of legends to explain the meaning or interpretation of symbols or colors on a map or diagram, such as title, subtitle, source, date, units, etc. - Layouts: choosing the appropriate position, alignment, spacing, or balance of elements on a map or diagram, such as margins, borders, grids, insets, etc.


How are maps and diagrams constructed?


Map construction methods



The fourth step in making a map is to construct it using one or more methods that produce a graphic representation of spatial relationships. There are many methods for constructing maps, but they can be broadly classified into three categories: manual drawing, mechanical reproduction, and photographic reproduction. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, depending on the type, quality, quantity, and complexity of the map.



Monkhouse and Wilkinson provide some examples of map construction methods (pp. 161-210): - Manual drawing: using hand tools such as pencils, pens, rulers, compasses, protractors, etc., to draw symbols, colors, shapes, lines, texts, etc., on a paper or other material. This method is simple, cheap, and flexible, but it is also time-consuming, labor-intensive, and prone to errors or inaccuracies. - Mechanical reproduction: using machines such as printers, copiers, plotters, scanners, etc., to print, copy, plot, scan, etc., symbols, colors, shapes, lines, texts, etc., on a paper or other material. This method is fast, efficient, and accurate, but it is also expensive, complex, and limited by the availability or compatibility of the machines. - Photographic reproduction: using cameras such as film cameras, digital cameras, webcams, etc., to capture, store, transmit, or display symbols, colors, shapes, lines, texts, etc., on a film, disk, screen, or other medium. This method is versatile, convenient, and realistic, but it is also costly, sensitive, and dependent on the quality or resolution of the cameras.


Diagram construction methods



The fourth step in making a diagram is to construct it using one or more methods that produce a graphic representation of non-spatial relationships. There are many methods for constructing diagrams, but they can be broadly classified into four categories: graphs, charts, tables, and others. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, depending on the type, quality, quantity, and complexity of the diagram.


Monkhouse and Wilkinson provide some examples of diagram construction methods (pp. 211-260): - Graphs: using lines, curves, bars, dots, or other symbols to represent the variation or relationship of one or more variables or sets of data over a continuous or discrete scale or axis, such as line graphs, bar graphs, pie graphs, scatter graphs, etc. This method is useful for showing trends, patterns, distributions, correlations, etc., but it is also difficult to compare or interpret multiple or complex graphs. - Charts: using boxes, circles, arrows, or other symbols to represent the structure or function of one or more features or phenomena in a hierarchical or sequential order or arrangement, such as flow charts, organization charts, tree charts, etc. This method is useful for showing processes, systems, classifications, etc., but it is also limited by the space or clarity of the symbols. - Tables: using rows, columns, cells, or other symbols to represent the quantity or quality of one or more variables or sets of data in a tabular or matrix form, such as frequency tables, contingency tables, cross tables, etc. This method is useful for showing data in a compact and organized way, but it is also boring and tedious to read or understand. - Others: using any other symbols or elements that are not classified as graphs, charts, or tables to represent data or information in a graphic form, such as maps, diagrams, pictograms, icons, etc. This method is useful for showing data in a creative and original way, but it is also ambiguous and subjective to interpret or evaluate.


What are some examples of maps and diagrams?


Thematic maps



One of the most common types of maps is thematic maps, which show spatial patterns of specific themes or phenomena on the earth's surface or in the sky. Thematic maps can be classified into two categories: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative thematic maps show the distribution or location of different kinds or categories of data, such as land use, vegetation, climate zones, etc. Quantitative thematic maps show the distribution or variation of different values or measurements of data, such as population density, temperature, rainfall, etc.


Monkhouse and Wilkinson provide some examples of thematic maps in their book (pp. 261-308): - Land use map: a qualitative thematic map that shows the types and extent of human activities on the land, such as agriculture, forestry, industry, urbanization, etc. For example, Figure 10.1 shows the land use map of England and Wales in 1961. - Vegetation map: a qualitative thematic map that shows the types and extent of plant life on the land, such as forests, grasslands, deserts, etc. For example, Figure 10.2 shows the vegetation map of Africa. - Climate map: a qualitative thematic map that shows the types and extent of climatic regions on the earth, based on temperature, precipitation, wind, etc. For example, Figure 10.3 shows the climate map of Europe. Heading Subheading Content --- --- --- - or per square mile. For example, Figure 10.4 shows the population density map of India in 1961. - Temperature map: a quantitative thematic map that shows the average or extreme values of temperature on the earth, such as annual mean temperature, monthly mean temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, etc. For example, Figure 10.5 shows the temperature map of the world in January. - Rainfall map: a quantitative thematic map that shows the amount or frequency of rainfall on the earth, such as annual rainfall, monthly rainfall, number of rainy days, etc. For example, Figure 10.6 shows the rainfall map of South America. Statistical maps



Another common type of maps is statistical maps, which show numerical data in a spatial context on the earth's surface or in the sky. Statistical maps can be classified into three categories: dot maps, choropleth maps, and proportional symbol maps. Dot maps use dots or points to represent the frequency or occurrence of a phenomenon or event in a given area, such as population, births, deaths, crimes, etc. Choropleth maps use colors or shades to represent the intensity or density of a phenomenon or variable in a given area, such as income, literacy, unemployment, etc. Proportional symbol maps use symbols or shapes that vary in size or proportion to represent the magnitude or value of a phenomenon or variable in a given area, such as production, consumption, exports, imports, etc.


Monkhouse and Wilkinson provide some examples of statistical maps in their book (pp. 309-356): - Dot map: a statistical map that uses dots or points to represent the frequency or occurrence of a phenomenon or event in a given area. For example, Figure 11.1 shows the dot map of population distribution in England and Wales in 1961. - Choropleth map: a statistical map that uses colors or shades to represent the intensity or density of a phenomenon or variable in a given area. For example, Figure 11.2 shows the choropleth map of literacy rate in India in 1961. - Proportional symbol map: a statistical map that uses symbols or shapes that vary in size or proportion to represent the magnitude or value of a phenomenon or variable in a given area. For example, Heading Subheading Content --- --- --- - in the world in 1961. Topographic maps



A third type of maps is topographic maps, which show the physical features of an area on the earth's surface or in the sky. Topographic maps can be classified into two categories: relief maps and drainage maps. Relief maps show the elevation or height of the land above or below a reference level, such as sea level, using contours, shading, colors, or symbols. Drainage maps show the direction or flow of water on the land, such as rivers, lakes, streams, etc., using lines, arrows, symbols, or colors.


Monkhouse and Wilkinson provide some examples of topographic maps in their book (pp. 357-404): - Relief map: a topographic map that shows the elevation or height of the land above or below a reference level, such as sea level. For example, Figure 12.1 shows the relief map of Switzerland using contours and shading. - Drainage map: a topographic map that shows the direction or flow of water on the land, such as rivers, lakes, streams, etc. For example, Figure 12.2 shows the drainage map of France using lines and arrows.


Cartograms



A fourth type of maps is cartograms, which distort the shape or size of an area on the earth's surface according to a variable or attribute, such as population size, GDP per capita, life expectancy, etc. Cartograms can be classified into two categories: area cartograms and distance cartograms. Area cartograms change the size of an area proportionally to a variable or attribute, while keeping the shape and location of the area relatively unchanged. Distance cartograms change the shape and location of an area inversely to a variable or attribute, while keeping the size of the area relatively unchanged.


Monkhouse and Wilkinson provide some examples of cartograms in their book (pp. 405-424): - Area cartogram: a cartogram that changes the size of an area proportionally to a variable or attribute, while keeping the shape and location of the area relatively unchanged. For example, Figure 13.1 shows the area cartogram of population distribution in Europe in 1960. - Distance cartogram: a cartogram that changes the shape and location of an area inversely to a variable or attribute, while keeping the size of the area relatively unchanged. For example, Figure 13.2 shows the distance cartogram of travel time from London to various cities in Europe.


Flow maps



A fifth type of maps is flow maps, which show movement or direction of a phenomenon or event over space or time, such as migration flows, trade flows, wind currents, etc. Flow maps can be classified into two categories: linear flow maps and radial flow maps. Linear flow maps use lines or arrows to represent movement or direction of a phenomenon or event along a path or route, such as roads, railways, airways, etc. Radial flow maps use lines or arrows to represent movement or direction of a phenomenon or event from or to a center or point, such as cities, countries, regions, etc.


Monkhouse and Wilkinson provide some examples of flow maps in their book (pp. 425-452): - Linear flow map: a flow map that uses lines or arrows to represent movement or direction of a phenomenon or event along a path or route, such as roads, railways, airways, etc. For example, Figure 14.1 shows the linear flow map of railway traffic in Great Britain in 1960. - Radial flow map: a flow map that uses lines or arrows to represent movement or direction of a phenomenon or event from or to a center or point, such as cities, countries, regions, etc. For example, Figure 14.2 shows the radial flow map of migration flows in Europe in 1960.


Conclusion


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In this article, we have reviewed a classic book on maps and diagrams: Maps and Diagrams: Their Compilation and Construction by F.J. Monkhouse and H.R. Wilkinson. Thi


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